### C++ Operators

In C++ programming, operators are used to perform operations on operands (i.e. variables and values).

C++ categorizes the operators in the following groups:

1. Arithmetic operators
2. Assignment operators
3. Relational operators
4. Logical operators
5. Bit-wise operators
6. Conditional Operators

Finally, miscellaneous operators such as sizeof, cast, member, and pointer are discussed here.

#### 1. Arithmetic Operators

These operators are used with numeric values to perform common mathematical operations.​

##### Table 1: Arithmetic operators
OperatorMeaningExample
Subtract right operand from the leftx – y
*Multiply two operandsx * y
/Divide left operand by the right one (always results into float)x / y
%Modulus – remainder of the division of left operand by the rightx % y
++Increment – Increases the value of a variable by 1x++
– –Decrement – Decreases the value of a variable by 1x – –

#### Example 1

`//arithmetic.cpp#include using namespace std;int main() {   int a = 100;   int b = 5;   int c, d;   //arithmetic operators demo   cout << "ADD: " << (a + b) << endl;   cout << "SUB: " << (a - b) << endl;   cout << "MUL: " << (a * b) << endl;   cout << "DIV: " << (a / b) << endl;   cout << "MOD: " << (a % b) << endl;   //post increment or decrement   c = b++; d = b--;   cout << "Post ++: " << c << endl;   cout << "Post --: " << d << endl;   //pre increment or decrement   c = ++b; d = --b;   cout << "Pre ++: " << c << endl;   cout << "Pre --: " << d << endl;  return 0; }`
##### Output:
`ADD: 105SUB: 95MUL: 500DIV: 20MOD: 0Post ++: 5Post --: 6Pre ++: 6Pre --: 5`

#### 2. Assignment Operators

These operators are used to assign values to variables.

##### Table 2: Assignment operators
OperatorExampleEquivalent to
=x = 5x = 5
+=x += 5x = x + 5
-=x -= 5x = x – 5
*=x *= 5x = x * 5
/=x /= 5x = x / 5
%=x %= 5x = x % 5
&=x &= 5x = x & 5
|=x |= 5x = x | 5
^=x ^= 5x = x ^ 5
>>=x >>= 5x = x >> 5
<<=x <<= 5x = x << 5

#### Example 2

`//assignment.cpp#include using namespace std;int main() {   int x = 5;   //assignment operators demo    x = x + 5;  // x += 5   cout << "x = " << x << endl;   x = x - 5;  // x -= 5   cout << "x = " << x << endl;   x = x * 5;  // x *= 5   cout << "x = " << x << endl;   x = x / 5;  // x /= 5   cout << "x = " << x << endl;   x = x % 5;  // x %= 5   cout << "x = " << x << endl;   return 0; }`
##### Output:
`x = 10x = 5x = 25x = 5x = 0`

#### 3. Relational Operators

These operators are used to compare two values.

##### Table 3: Relational operators
OperatorMeaningExample
>Greater that – True if left operand is greater than the rightx > y
<Less that – True if left operand is less than the rightx < y
==Equal to – True if both operands are equalx == y
!=Not equal to – True if operands are not equalx != y
>=Greater than or equal to – True if left operand is greater than or equal to the rightx >= y
<=Less than or equal to – True if left operand is less than or equal to the rightx <= y

#### Example 3

`//relational.cpp#include using namespace std;int main() {   int a = 10, b = 5;   //relational operators demo    cout << (a>b) << endl;  //1   cout << (a<b) << endl;  //0   cout << (a==b) << endl; //0   cout << (a!=b) << endl; //1   cout << (a>=b) << endl; //1   cout << (a<=b) << endl; //0   return 0; }`
`100110`

#### 4. Logical Operators

These operators are used to combine conditional statements.

##### Table 4: Logical operators
OperatorMeaningExample
&&Logical AND — True if both the operands are truex && y
||Logical OR — True if either of the operands is truex || y
!Logical NOT — True if operand is false (complements the operand)!x

#### Example 4

`//logical.cpp#include using namespace std;int main() {int result;   //logical operators demo    result = ((10>5) && (9<7));   cout << "Logical AND = " << result << endl; //0   result = ((10>5) || (9<7));   cout << "Logical OR = " << result << endl; //1   result = !(9<7);   cout << "Logical NOT = " << result << endl; //1   return 0; }`
##### Output:
`Logical AND = 0Logical  OR = 1Logical NOT = 1`

#### 5. Bit-wise Operators

These operators are used to compare binary numbers.

For example, in the table below, let x = 10 (`0000 1010` in binary) and y = 4 (`0000 0100` in binary)

##### Table 5: Bit-wise operators
OperatorMeaningExample
&Bit-wise ANDx& y = 0 (`0000 0000`)
|Bit-wise ORx | y = 14 (`0000 1110`)
~Bit-wise NOT~x = -11 (`1111 0101`)
^Bit-wise XORx ^ y = 14 (`0000 1110`)
>>Bit-wise right shiftx>> 2 = 2 (`0000 0010`)
<<Bit-wise left shiftx<< 2 = 40 (`0010 1000`)​

#### Example 5

`//bitwise.cpp#include using namespace std;int main() {   int x = 10;   int y = 4;   //bitwise operators demo    cout << "Bit-wise AND: " << (x & y) << endl; //0   cout << "Bit-wise OR: " << (x | y) << endl;  //14   cout << "Bit-wise NOT: " << (~x) << endl;    //-11   cout << "Bit-wise XOR: " << (x ^ y) << endl; //14   cout << "Bit-wise right shift: " << (x >> 2) << endl; //2   cout << "Bit-wise left shift: " << (x << 2) << endl;  //40   return 0; }`
##### Output:
`Bit-wise AND: 0Bit-wise  OR: 14Bit-wise NOT: -11Bit-wise XOR: 14Bit-wise right shift: 2Bit-wise  left shift: 40`

#### 6. Conditional Operators

The conditional operator is the only ternary operator (operator that takes three arguments) in C++. The operator evaluates the first argument and, if true, evaluates the second argument. If the first argument evaluates to false, then the third argument is evaluated. The conditional operator is the expression equivalent of the if-else statement.

#### Example 6

`//conditional.cpp#include using namespace std;int main() {   int a = 15, b = 12;   int result;   //conditional operators demo    result = a > b ? 1 : 0;   cout << "Result = " << result << endl; //1   return 0; }`

Result = 1

#### Miscellaneous Operators

The following text describes some other operators supported by C++ language.

sizeof operator: The sizeof is a compile-time operator that determines the size, in bytes, of a variable or data type. An example is given below:

```int a = 10 ;
//sizeof operator
cout << sizeof(a) << endl;       //4cout << sizeof(double) << endl;  //8```

cast operator: A cast is a unary operator that converts one data type into another. An example is given below:

```float f = 10.25;
int i ;
//casting operator
i = (int) f;  cout << i; //10```

member operators: The . (dot) operator and the -> (arrow) operator are the member operators which are used to refer individual members of classes, structures, and unions. We will explain this topic later with respect to C++ structures.

pointer operators: C++ provides two pointer operators, which are –

(i) address of operator & and

(ii) Indirection operator *.

We will explain this topic later with respect to C++ pointers.